World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition of infertility is a failure to conceive following twelve months of unprotected intercourse in the absence of any known pathology. When age is above 30 it changes to 6 months.

Global estimates of infertility range between 15% of couples with women of childbearing age, affecting between 50 – 80 million people.

Infertility is due to the female problem in 30% of the cases and male problems in 30% of the cases. Problems common to both partners are diagnosed in 15-30% of infertile couples. Unexplained infertility is when the cause of infertility is not found and is seen in 10-15 % of couples. Female factors are:
  • Ovulatory disorders
  • Damaged fallopian tubes
  • Endometriosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Uterine abnormality
  • Endocrine abnormalities like Hyperprolactinemia, PCOS, Hypothyroidism.
  • Poor ovarian reserve

No. The incidence of infertility in men and women is almost equal. Infertility is due to a problem in females in approximately 30%of the cases and problems in the male in approximately 40% of the cases. Problems common to both partners are diagnosed in 15-30% of infertile couples. In spite of thorough medical investigations, the causes of the fertility problem remain unexplained in up to 5-10% of infertile couples.

Painful periods do not affect fertility. In fact, for most patients, regular painful periods usually signal ovulatory cycles. However, progressively worsening pain during periods (especially when this is accompanied by pain during intercourse) may mean you have endometriosis which in turn may affect your fertility. As long as the periods are regular, this means ovulation is occurring. Some normal women have menstrual cycle lengths of as long as 40 days. Of course, since they have fewer cycles every year, the number of times they are “fertile” in a year is decreased. Also, they need to monitor their fertile period more closely, since this is delayed (as compared to women with a 30-day cycle).

Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus (endometrial implant). Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, bowel, or the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond your pelvic region. In endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal tissue that binds organs together. This can give rise to infertility or subfertility.

It is recommended that you consult your Gynaecologist at the earliest, who will try to find out the cause of infertility by advising some investigations to you and your husband. These tests will tell if your husband’s sperm count is normal, if your fallopian tubes and uterus are normal, and if you are producing good sufficient eggs. It is only after undergoing these tests will your doctor be able to diagnose the cause of infertility. Based on the diagnosis, Doctor will recommend the best possible solution.

Around the middle of the cycle is the time of ovulation which is the release of a mature egg from the ovary. Usually, the fertile period is one 3 to 4 days before and after the probable date of ovulation. Unprotected intercourse on alternate days during this period gives better a chance of pregnancy.

A correct diagnosis accomplished by investigations and consultation with a Fertility Specialist can help you determine the correct treatment options. At Usha IVF, the team of doctors and counselors help the couple about all the treatment options available to help them make an informed decision.

Surgical Sperm Retrieval is offered to couples with Azoospermia (no sperm in the semen). IUI is offered to a couple having mild to moderate oligospermia and open Fallopian tubes in a female with good ovarian reserve. PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) is done in case of blocked ducts leading to azoospermia. Here, under local anesthesia, a needle is inserted in the duct and the sperms aspirated. TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) is done in the case of non-obstructive Azoospermia. Under local/short general anesthesia, sperms are obtained by biopsy from testes directly. TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration) is done in the case of non-obstructive Azoospermia. Under local/short general anesthesia, sperms are obtained from the testes by relatively less invasive procedures. MESA (Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration): refers to the process of microscopic surgery used to retrieve the sperms from the ducts that convey them from the testicles. This is attempted in case there’s an obstruction to the duct (obstructive Azoospermia). TESE or MESA is a technique developed for patients with no sperm cells in their sperm due to an undeveloped or obstructed spermatic cord. The cause of obstruction can be former sterilization or an infection of the epididymis. The sperms thus retrieved are used for ICSI. IMSI is useful in couples where the morphology of sperms is bad in selecting the best sperm. When the testicles make no sperm cells at all, of course, these are not possible. Sperm donor program is advised to a couple where the husband’s semen has no sperm. For the couples opting for donor sperms, we procure semen samples from certified sperm banks. Donor IUI or IVF/ICSI is offered as per indication. The confidentiality and anonymity of the sperm donor, as well as the recipient couple, are strictly maintained.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a form of assisted conception. During IUI, your doctor will place washed, prepared sperm into your uterus (womb) and near to your egg at your time of ovulation. This procedure is often combined with fertility drugs to increase your chances of conceiving.

During IVF, a woman’s eggs are surgically retrieved and then fertilized in a laboratory by mixing with a partner (or donor’s) sperm. The fertilized egg, or embryo, is left to grow for two to five days and is then surgically transferred back into the woman’s womb.

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common type of assisted reproductive technology (ART), used to create an embryo by bypassing certain causes of infertility, such as mild sperm abnormalities in men, and fallopian tube or ovulation irregularity in women.

The average IVF success rates using one’s own eggs begins to drop around age thirty and dips rapidly in the mid-30s and early 40s, due to lower egg quantity and quality. At Usha IVF, our success rates consistently between 45% to 60%.

In addition to age, success rates with IVF vary with respect to one’s height, weight, infertility diagnosis, sperm count, and reproductive histories, such as the previous number of pregnancies, miscarriages, and births.

Fertility medications can cause mood swings, headaches, hot flashes, abdominal pain, and bloating. In very rare cases, fertility medication may induce ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS), which can produce more severe symptoms such as:
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Shortness of breath
  • Decreased urinary frequency
  • Feeling faint
  • Significant weight gain within three to five days
  • Severe stomach pain and bloating
  • Potential side effects after IVF treatment may include:
  • Passing a tiny small amount of clear or blood-colored fluid after the procedure
  • Mild bloating
  • Mild cramping
  • Breast tenderness
  • Constipation

The cost of IVF depends on the treatment and options selected. For IVF pricing information, please visit our centre.

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